Frozen State Backscatter Intensity from Sentinel-1

Frozen state backscatter intensity was derived from Sentinel-1 acquisitions from December 2015 and 2016. By excluding the effects of liquid water content (acquisitions under frozen conditions), backscatter only depends on surface roughness and vegetation structure. C-HH winter backscatter could be shown to correspond to wetness levels. Smooth surfaces represent wetter areas than rough surfaces (with respect to wavelength, ~5.6 cm). In addition, C-band SAR information (frozen condition) can be directly translated into soil organic carbon content of the upper 0-100 cm for areas without woody vegetation.